Course Summary

A urinary tract infection can develop in any part of the urinary system. In a healthy person, urine is able to flow without obstruction from the kidney through the urinary tract. Bacteria that enter the urinary system are able to be flushed out during urination but the bacteria that enter and remain in the urinary tract can cause infection. A urinary infection may be uncomplicated or complicated. There are various risk factors and causes for complicated urinary tract infections, such as a patient’s anatomical features, or a medical condition. Clinical assessment and laboratory testing are important for diagnosing a urinary tract infection and for arriving at a correct diagnosis.

Course Format


Course Syllabus

  • Introduction
  • Microbiota and the Urinary Tract
  • Prevalence and Etiology
  • Classification of UTIs
    • Complicated Versus Uncomplicated UTIs
  • Risk Factors for UTIs
    • Urinary Tract Abnormalities
    • Immunocompromised Patients
    • Urinary Retention and Catheterization
    • Kidney Transplant
    • Pregnancy
    • Other Predictive Factors
  • Uncomplicated UTIs
    • Asymptomatic Bacteriuria
    • Uncomplicated Cystitis
    • Uncomplicated Pyelonephritis
    • Recurrent UTIs: Cystitis and Pyelonephritis
  • Complicated UTIs
    • Urethritis
    • Pyelonephritis During Pregnancy
    • Vesicoureteral Reflux
    • Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections (CAUTI)
    • Urosepsis
    • Bacterial Prostatitis
  • Signs and Symptoms of UTI
    • Pyelonephritis
    • Cystitis
  • Diagnosis of Symptomatic UTI
  • Case Study: UTI During Pregnancy
    • Discussion
  • Case Study: Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Summary


Noah H. Carpenter, MD

Dr. Noah Carpenter is a Thoracic and Peripheral Vascular Surgeon. He completed his Bachelor of Science in chemistry and medical school and training at the University of Manitoba. Dr. Carpenter completed surgical residency and fellowship at the University of Edmonton and Affiliated Hospitals in Edmonton, Alberta, and an additional Adult Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery fellowship at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. He has specialized in microsurgical techniques, vascular endoscopy, laser and laparoscopic surgery in Brandon, Manitoba and Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada and in Colorado, Texas, and California. Dr. Carpenter has an Honorary Doctorate of Law from the University of Calgary, and was appointed a Citizen Ambassador to China, and has served as a member of the Indigenous Physicians Association of Canada, the Canadian College of Health Service Executives, the Science Institute of the Northwest Territories, Canada Science Council, and the International Society of Endovascular Surgeons, among others. He has been an inspiration to youth, motivating them to understand the importance of achieving higher education.

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