Please note: This is the pharmacology version of the course: Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics for Treating Schizophrenia. Click here to take the general version (no pharmacology CEs).

Course Summary

Schizophrenia is a severe mental health disorder characterized by distorted thinking, disrupted emotions, and impaired social functioning. Individuals with schizophrenia may experience hallucinations, delusions, and difficulty distinguishing reality from fantasy, which presents unique challenges in treatment due to issues of nonadherence and the risk of relapse. An overview of the available long-acting injectable (LAI) medications – mechanisms, benefits, and considerations – in managing schizophrenia are described.

Course Format


Course Syllabus

  • Introduction
  • Schizophrenia: Diagnosis and Prognosis
  • Subtypes of Schizophrenia
    • Paranoid Schizophrenia
    • Catatonic Schizophrenia
    • Disorganized Schizophrenia (Hebephrenic Schizophrenia)
    • Residual Schizophrenia
  • Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia
    • Hallucinations
    • Delusions
    • Disorganized Thinking
    • Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia
  • Causes of Schizophrenia
    • Genetics and Environmental Factors
    • Psychosocial Factors
  • Schizophrenia Course and Prognosis
    • Symptom Relapse
  • Treatment Considerations
    • Duration of Pharmacologic Therapy
    • Treatment Adherence and Symptom Relapse
  • Long-acting Injectable Antipsychotic Treatment
    • Pharmacology of LAI Antipsychotics
    • Role of LAIs in Schizophrenia
    • Early Use and Benefit of Atypical LAI Therapy
  • LAI versus Oral Antipsychotics
    • Improved Adherence and Convenience on LAI Antipsychotics
    • Potential to Decrease Relapse and Rehospitalization
    • Benefits versus Risks of LAI Treatment
    • Special Mention for Clozapine
  • Safety and Efficacy of Atypical LAIs
    • Efficacy of Specific LAIs
    • Side Effects of LAI Therapy
  • Initiation of LAI Antipsychotic Treatment: Role of the Interdisciplinary Health Team
  • Summary


Kathryn Brogan, MD

Kathryn Brogan, MD is a physician and board-certified general and child and adolescent psychiatrist. Dr. Brogan graduated from medical school at University of Louisville School of Medicine in 2016. She then completed Psychiatry Residency at Northwestern University and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellowship at University of Utah, graduating in 2021. Dr. Brogan’s special interests and areas of expertise include first break psychosis, bipolar disorder, psychopharmacology, and systems of care. In addition to clinical and academic work, Dr. Brogan is passionate about advocacy, teaching, and physician-led team based care.

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