Course Summary

Human trafficking has become a growing social concern worldwide. Despite efforts to prevent it, human trafficking continues to affect all age groups, genders, and ethnicities. Health professionals are increasingly required to be aware of the problem of human trafficking, to recognize it, and to know how to intervene. Although the laws and law enforcement agencies combat human trafficking, health agencies are increasingly confronted with the crippling effects of this inhumane abuse on people and communities.

Course Format


Course Syllabus

  1. Introduction
  1. Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act and 22 USC Ch. 78: Trafficking Victims Protection
  1. Human Trafficking Statistics and Trends
  1. Statistics
  2. Trends
  3. Debt Bondage
  4. Domestic Servitude
  5. Forced Labor
  6. Sex Trafficking
  7. Forced Marriage
  8. Organ Trafficking
  1. Human Trafficking Perpetrators and Victims
  1. Consequences of Human Trafficking
  1. Psychological Consequences
  2. Physical Comorbidities
  1. Methods of Human Trafficking
  1. Isolation
  2. Degradation
  3. Omnipotence
  4. Monopolizing Perception
  5. Indulgences
  6. Trivial Demands
  7. Inducing Debility
  1. Recognizing Victims of Human Trafficking
  1. Assessment of Trafficked Victims
  2. Interviews for Suspected Victims
  1. Reporting Human Trafficking

Role of Interdisciplinary Health Teams

  1. Research Review: Human Trafficking and Mental Illness
  1. Summary


Marilyn Lajoie, MD, DC, CCSP

Dr. Marilyn Lajoie obtained her medical degree from Saba University School of Medicine in 1999, Her residency began with one year of Anatomical and Surgical Pathology at Orlando Regional Medical Center, before transferring within the same post-graduate residency program to Internal Medicine. Upon completion of residency, she went into private practice in Orlando, where she specialized in Internal Medicine, Sports Medicine and Rehab, as well as acute and chronic pain management. Before becoming a medical doctor, she had practiced as a Chiropractic Physician, graduating from New York Chiropractic College in 1980, practicing initially on Long Island, N.Y., before moving to Florida where she had a successful chiropractic practice and physical rehabilitation center, and gained recognition as a Certified Chiropractic Sports Physician. Dr. Lajoie was also the Director of Physical Therapy at Horizon Hospital, a residential and outpatient psychiatric hospital, and later, continued in the same capacity at Horizon’s sister psychiatric hospital in Brooksville, Florida. Dr. Lajoie maintained her chiropractic license and continued to practice both Internal Medicine and Chiropractic throughout private practice, until moving to the Veterans Healthcare System in 2014. Continuing in both fields, she became the Deputy Chief of Staff for the Montana VA, where she completed her service in 2021. Dr. Lajoie now works predominantly in telemedicine, and in an Expert Witness capacity for both medical and chiropractic cases. Still living in Montana, she enjoys being able to treat not only the rural areas of the state through this technology, but also patients across the US where she maintains multiple active state licenses. She and her husband also own a llama ranch with over thirty llamas that are hand selected for rare genetics. At the llama ranch, the public is invited to come and visit to learn about these elegant creatures, and to see ranch life firsthand – llama style! Dr. Lajoie and her husband have six adult children, as well as seven dogs.

Allison Russo, DNP, PMHNP-BC

Allison Russo has been working in the field of psychiatry since 2009. She has enjoyed experience working in outpatient, forensics, residential and acute care settings. She has had the honor of treating Sailors across the United States and the world, serving in the Navy Reserve, since 2013. She enjoys working with clients across the lifespan. She completed her Bachelor of Science in Nursing in 2009 and Master of Nursing in 2013 at Montana State University. She obtained her Doctor of Nursing Practice from the University of North Dakota in 2016. She is passionate about collaborating with families to provide support and solve complex problems. She is excited about the use of technology, and happy to use it, to improve access to mental health care.  In her off time, she can generally be found working on a remodeling project, traveling, or at the local Crossfit gym. She loves spending time with her husband, her 5 year dog, and her son.

Melissa Rambo, AA, BS, LAC

Melissa Rambo has worked as a Licensed Addictions Counselor and as a case manager for individuals who are diagnosed with severe disabling mental illness, recommending the appropriate American Society Addiction Medicine level of care. She collaborates with Medical Assisted Treatment teams and utilizes motivational approaches when working with individuals enrolled in sobriety treatment to implement harm reduction. Melissa graduated from Montana State University in 2009 with a focus in Human Services, and has been working on completing a Master’s Program through Grand Canyon University with a focus on Education. As a licensed therapist, she combines a holistic approach when treating clients with a history of substance use, mental illness, trauma, and other comorbid conditions to facilitate a higher level of care when needed. When not at work, Melissa enjoys traveling to other countries, spending time with her husband and two sons, and is fascinated with cultural art and dress design.

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