Course Summary

Clostridium difficile infection is a major cause of infectious disease concern in the North America. It is associated with hospital-acquired intestinal inflammation and diarrhea and, most commonly, with normal intestinal flora disruption due to poor prescribing practices of antibiotics. It has been reported that antibiotics prescribed in hospitals are often unnecessary or incorrect. Observing infection control recommendations and more careful antibiotic use can prevent clostridium difficile infection. The risk of clostridium difficile infection associated with antibiotic use and other contributing factors, disease recognition, treatment and prevention are discussed.

Course Format


Course Syllabus

  • I.              Introduction
  • II.           Disease Prevalence
  • III.         Risk Factors of Clostridium Difficile
    • 1.   Antibiotic or Other Medication Use
    • 2.   Nosocomial Infection
  • IV.          Diagnosis of Clostridium Difficile
    • 1.   Polymerase Chain Reaction
    • 2.   Cell Cytotoxicity Assay
    • 3.   Sigmoidoscopy/Colonoscopy
    • 4.   Imaging Tests
    • 5.   Complications of CDI
  • V.            Symptoms of Clostridium Difficile
    • 1.   Mild to Moderate Infection
    • 2.   Severe Infection
  • VI.          Treatment of Clostridium Difficile
    • 1.   Antibiotic Therapy
    • 2.   Surgery
  • VII.       Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Infection
    • 1.   Medical Treatment
  • VIII.     Prevention of CDI Transmission
    • 1.   Surveillance
    • 2.   Early Detection and Contact Precaution
    • 3.   Environmental Cleaning
    • 4.   Chlorhexidine Bathing
    • 5.   Antibiotic Stewardship
    • 6.   Gastric Acid Suppression
  • IX.          Summary


Noah H. Carpenter, MD

Dr. Noah Carpenter is a Thoracic and Peripheral Vascular Surgeon. He completed his Bachelor of Science in chemistry and medical school and training at the University of Manitoba. Dr. Carpenter completed surgical residency and fellowship at the University of Edmonton and Affiliated Hospitals in Edmonton, Alberta, and an additional Adult Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery fellowship at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. He has specialized in microsurgical techniques, vascular endoscopy, laser and laparoscopic surgery in Brandon, Manitoba and Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada and in Colorado, Texas, and California. Dr. Carpenter has an Honorary Doctorate of Law from the University of Calgary, and was appointed a Citizen Ambassador to China, and has served as a member of the Indigenous Physicians Association of Canada, the Canadian College of Health Service Executives, the Science Institute of the Northwest Territories, Canada Science Council, and the International Society of Endovascular Surgeons, among others. He has been an inspiration to youth, motivating them to understand the importance of achieving higher education.

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