Please note: This is the general version of the course: Recognition of Hyponatremia in Athletes and Sporting Enthusiasts. No pharmacology credits will be earned. Click here to take the pharmacology version.

Course Summary

Cessation or a substantial reduction in the use of cannabis can cause cannabis withdrawal syndrome. Cannabis withdrawal syndrome may occur with daily, or almost daily, heavy and prolonged use. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) has four criteria that must be met to establish a diagnosis of cannabis withdrawal syndrome. Cannabis withdrawal syndrome may lead to impairment. A recovery treatment plan must address the symptoms of withdrawal and discourage the patient from returning to cannabis use. These treatment plans may include pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, alone or in combination.

Course Format


Course Syllabus

  • Introduction
  • Prevalence of Cannabis Withdrawal Syndrome
  • Pharmacology of Cannabis
    • Pharmacokinetics and Clinical Effects
  • Cannabis Withdrawal
    • Diagnosis and Clinical Course
    • Risk Factors
    • Symptoms
  • Pharmacotherapy
    • Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists
    • Current Research
    • Gabapentin
    • Guanfacine
  • Psychotherapy
    • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
    • Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Contingency Management
    • Multidimensional Family Therapy
  • Case Study: Drug-Induced Psychosis
  • Summary


Allison Russo, DNP, PMHNP-BC

Allison Russo has been working in the field of psychiatry since 2009. She has enjoyed experience working in outpatient, forensics, residential and acute care settings. She has had the honor of treating Sailors across the United States and the world, serving in the Navy Reserve, since 2013. She enjoys working with clients across the lifespan. She completed her Bachelor of Science in Nursing in 2009 and Master of Nursing in 2013 at Montana State University. She obtained her Doctor of Nursing Practice from the University of North Dakota in 2016. She is passionate about collaborating with families to provide support and solve complex problems. She is excited about the use of technology, and happy to use it, to improve access to mental health care.  In her off time, she can generally be found working on a remodeling project, traveling, or at the local Crossfit gym. She loves spending time with her husband, her 5 year dog, and her son.

Richard Daniels, PharmD, BCPS

Richard “Cole” Daniels earned his Doctor of Pharmacy(PharmD) from the Skaggs School of Pharmacy at the University of Montana in 2018. Throughout pharmacy school he completed a 3-year internship at Community Medical Center in Missoula, Montana in which he gained valuable experience in an acute care setting. Cole currently serves as a psychiatric clinical staff pharmacist at the Montana State Hospital. He has over 11 years of pharmacy experience having worked in several settings including retail, acute care, and inpatient psychiatric care. Cole has a diverse set of interests. However, acute care medicine, infectious disease, pain management, and asthma/COPD are a primary focus of his at the Montana State Hospital. He obtained board certification as a certified pharmacotherapy specialist in the Spring of 2022.

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