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Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP)

Author: Jassin M. Jouria, MD
(Click author's name for bio)

CE: 2 hours Pharmacology: 0.5 hour
Rated 4.7 out of 5.0 based on 1510 reviews

Course Summary

Ventilators are machines that provide life-saving oxygen to patients through a tube in the nose, mouth, or trachea. However, sometimes germs will enter through the tube and take up residence in a patient’s lungs, developing into ventilator-associated pneumonia, or VAP. Although most cases of VAP are treated successfully with antibiotics, early diagnosis is critical, especially since many VAP patients are intubated and/or heavily sedated, essentially unable to alert medical staff to their symptoms. Nurses need to be able to recognize risk factors and symptoms to provide these early diagnoses and allow for the best possible outcome for their patients.

Course Format


Course Syllabus

  1. Introduction
  2. Microbiology of VAP
  3. Microbiology of CAP
  4. Mechanical Ventilation 1. Indications 2. Goals of Mechanical Ventilation
  5. VAP And Pathophysiology
  6. Risk Factors
    1. Ventilation for 5+ Days
    2. Recent Hospitalization
    3. Residence in Nursing Home
    4. Hemodialysis Treatment
    5. Chemotherapy
    6. IV Wound Care
    7. Recent Antibiotic Use
    8. Immunocompromised Patients
  7. Symptoms
    1. Fever
    2. Purulent Sputum
    3. Leukocytosis
    4. Low Body Temperature
    5. Hypoxemia
  8. Diagnosis
    1. Blood Work
    2. Chest X-Ray
    3. Culture
    4. Bronchoscopy
    5. Bronchoalveolar Lavage
    6. Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score
  9. VAP Treatment
    1. Empiric Therapy
    2. Targeted Drug Therapy
  10. Patient Care During Treatment
    1. Feeding and Body Positioning
    2. Intubation Considerations
    3. Oral Care
  11. Prognosis
  12. Summary


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