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Type 2 Diabetes - Current Modalities and Treatments

Author: Kellie Wilson, PharmD

CE: 3 hours Pharmacology: 3 hours
Rated 4.7 out of 5.0 based on 3598 reviews

Course Summary

Without proper prevention and lifestyle adjustments, people diagnosed with prediabetic states will likely progress to type 2 diabetes. The development of type 2 diabetes is not inevitable. Choosing a healthy lifestyle and being motivated to improve health, such as being physically active and maintaining a healthy weight can help a person maintain normal blood glucose levels. The American Diabetes Association recommends routine screening for type 2 diabetes beginning at age 45 especially for people who are overweight. Individuals who have normal screening test results should repeat screening every three years. Screening is also recommended for people who are under 45 and overweight if there are other diabetes risk factors and other comorbid and/or family risk factors. In the United States the prevalence of diabetes tends to vary according to socioeconomic and other factors. There is an ongoing need for provider-patient education and engagement to improve patient guidance and adherence with proper treatment.

Course Format


Course Syllabus

I. Introduction

1.   Epidemiology

II. Prediabetes versus Diabetes
III. Diabetes Type 2
IV. Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes

1.   Glycated Hemoglobin
2.   Random Blood Sugar
3.   Fasting Blood Sugar
4.   Oral Glucose Tolerance
5.   Post-diagnosis

V. Lifestyle Changes for Type 2 Diabetes

1.   Diet
2.   Exercise

VI. Pharmacological Treatment: Insulin

1.   Insulin

VII. Pharmacological Treatment: Oral Forms of Medication

1.   Metformin

VIII. Sulfonylureas

1.   Glyburide
2.   Glipizide
3.   Glimepiride

IX. Meglitinides

1.   Repaglinide (Prandin®)
2.   Nateglinide (Starlix®)

X. Thiazolidinediones

1.   Rosiglitazone (Avandia®)
2.   Pioglitazone (Actos®)

XI. DPP-4 inhibitors

1.   Sitagliptin (Januvia®)
2.   Saxagliptan (Onglyza®)
3.   Linagliptin (Tradjenta®)

XII. GLP-1 Receptor Agonists

1.   Exenatide (Byetta®)
2.   Liraglutide (Victoza®)
3.   Semaglutide (Ozempic®)

XIII. SGLT2 Inhibitors

1.   Canagliflozin (Invokana®)
2.   Dapagliflozin (Farxiga®)
3.   Empagliflozin (Jardiance®)

XIV. Case Studies of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

1.   Case 1: Failure of Metformin Monotherapy
2.   Case 2: Failure of Metformin and a DPP-4 Inhibitor

XV. Summary


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