Find Your Board CEU Requirements & Accreditations:
Return to Course List

Diabetic Retinopathy: Pathophysiology, Clinical Presentation, and Diagnosis

Author: Richard Daniels, PharmD, BCPS, Dana Bartlett, RN, BSN, MSN, MA, CSPI
(Click author's name for bio)

CE: 2.5 hours Pharmacology: 0.5 hour
Rated 4.7 out of 5.0 based on 1632 reviews

Course Summary

Several eye diseases require advanced care to minimize or eliminate the risk of vision loss. The vascular features of diabetic retinopathy are considered predominant. Laboratory research on endothelial cell dysfunction has confirmed that diabetic retinopathy is a vascular disease. Photocoagulation or laser therapy is an accepted treatment for retinopathy, and photocoagulation can reduce the risk of vision loss due to diabetic macular edema. The standard care for advanced diabetic retinopathy is a focal laser. Intensive insulin therapy can reduce the risk of developing retinopathy significantly. Although eye diseases can be chronic, early symptoms can be treated to improve the patient's quality of life.

Course Format


Course Syllabus

  1. Introduction

  2. Prevalence and Pathophysiology

    1. Non-Proliferative DR and Proliferative DR

    2. Diabetic Macular Edema

  3. Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis

    1. Fundoscopic Examination

    2. Fluorescein Angiography

    3. Optical Coherence Tomography

    4. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

    5. Ultra Wide-Field Fluorescein Angiography

    6. DR Severity and Progression: Diabetic Macular Ischemia

    7. Dilated Eye Exam

  4. Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy

    1. Screening Guidelines

    2. Laboratory Testing

    3. Disparities in DM Screening

    4. DR Progression: Global Report

  5. Treatment

    1. Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy

    2. Laser Therapy: Mechanism and Treatment

    3. Laser Therapy: Application

    4. Corticosteroid Injection

    5. Vitrectomy

  6. Case Study: Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

  7. Summary


Most of our courses will satisfy your CEU requirements. However, you can double check by using the search option at the top of this page.
You can download all the required materials above where it says "Preview the material"
No prerequisites are required for this course.
Yes. Once you read the material and complete the evaluation you can print your certificate right away from your "My Account" page.

How it Works


1. Confirm Your


2. Read the


4. Print Your